Why the black men both get and die from prostate cancer at higher risks?

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What is cancer?             

Cancer affects 1 in 3 people. Chances are that you or someone you know has been affected by cancer.

Here is some information to help you better understand what cancer is., You are made up of trillions of cells that over your lifetime normally grow and divide as needed. When cells are abnormal or get old, they usually die. Cancer starts when something goes wrong in this process and your cells keep making new cells and the old or abnormal ones don’t die when they should. As the cancer cells grow out of control, they can crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for your body to work the way it should., For many people, cancer can be treated successfully. In fact, more people than ever before lead full lives after cancer treatment.

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What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small gland at the base of the bladder in males. It encircles the first part of the urethra. The prostate gland plays an important role during the reproductive years of life.

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is a disease common to elderly men, with more than 75% of cancers being diagnosed in men over the age of 65. In recent years, however, the incidence has increased in younger age groups.

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm., Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Prostate cancer that’s detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland — has the best chance for successful treatment.

Black men both get and die from prostate cancer at a higher rate. The reasons are complex and not fully understood.

Black men are 50% more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime and twice as likely to die from the disease. that there are many factors that can increase the risk and worsen the outcome of prostate cancer — not just being of African descent. These include age, family history, smoking, limited physical activity, and obesity.

The higher risk may be related to social and environmental issues involving nutrition, access to health care, and exposure to environmental pollutants,” he says. “Disparities in outcomes also can be affected by differences in when the cancer is diagnosed and how the men are treated after diagnosis.”

Additionally, prostate cancer in Black men may have biological characteristics associated with more aggressive disease. “There is evidence suggesting that this is partly related to inherited genetic factors, “There may be differences in tumor biology that cause this cancer in Black men to progress faster or be harder to treat, but we need to investigate this possibility further to learn more.”

Black men should be screened for prostate cancer more proactively.

Given the higher risk of developing prostate cancer and dying from the disease, Black men are more likely to be saved by screening. The main prostate cancer screening tests are a digital rectal exam, in which a doctor checks for swelling and inflammation, and a PSA test, which measures the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the blood.

“Screening guidelines have been based on studies that included very few Black men, so they may underestimate the screening benefit for this group, “Overall, Black men may need earlier and more frequent screening than the general guidelines would suggest. “Despite the increased risk of developing prostate cancer and dying from it, Black men are underrepresented in clinical trials that test new therapies — making up only 6.7% of patients, Black men are at a higher risk of getting prostate cancer and dying from it., Because of this, Black men (and their doctors) may want to consider increasing screening for this disease., Black men could benefit from joining clinical trials and other research studies related to prostate cancer.

What does prostate cancer do to a man?

Most men with early prostate cancer don’t have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows. Some signs of prostate cancer are trouble peeing, blood in the pee (urine), trouble getting an erection, and pain in the back, hips, ribs, or other bones.

What percentage of older men get prostate cancer?

Although only about 1 in 456 men under age 50 will be diagnosed, the rate shoots up to 1 in 54 for ages 50 to 59, 1 in 19 for ages 60 to 69, and 1 in 11 for men 70 and older. Nearly 60% of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 65.

Symptoms

Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages., Prostate cancer that’s more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:

Trouble urinating, decreased force in the stream of urine Blood in the urine, Blood in the semen, Bone pain, losing weight without trying, Erectile dysfunction

Risk factors

Older age. Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. It’s most common after age 50.

Race. For reasons not yet determined, Black people have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do people of other races. In Black people, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.

Family history. If a blood relative, such as a parent, sibling or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.

Obesity.  Overweight People who are obese may have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared with people considered to have a healthy weight, though studies have had mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to be more aggressive and more likely to return after initial treatment.

Complications

Cancer that spreads. Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones can cause pain and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it may still respond to treatment and may be controlled, but it’s unlikely to be cured.

Incontinence. Not being able to hold urine Both prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the type you have; how severe it is and the likelihood it will improve over time. Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery.

Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are available to treat erectile dysfunction.

Prevention

You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:

o          Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.

o          Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health., Choose healthy foods over supplements. No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.

o          Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you’re new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.

o          Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.

o          Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. If you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, you and your doctor may consider medications or other treatments to reduce the risk. However, some evidence indicates that people taking these medications may have an increased risk of getting a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor.

Cause of prostate cancer

It’s not known exactly what causes prostate cancer, although a number of things can increase your risk of developing the condition. These include: age – the risk rises as you get older, and most cases are diagnosed in men over 50 years of age. ethnic group – prostate cancer is more common in black men than in Asian men.

The cause of prostate enlargement is unknown, but it’s believed to be linked to hormonal changes as a man gets older. The balance of hormones in your body changes as you get older and this may cause your prostate gland to grow.

Can you live without prostate?

The prostate plays an important role in male fertility and sex life. Although men can survive without a prostate, unfortunately, for many men, prostate removal results in poor quality of life, issues like erectile dysfunction, and more. Some men can expect to recover well from a proctomy.

What age are you most likely to get prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer mainly affects men over 50, and your risk increases as you get older. The most common age for men to be diagnosed with prostate cancer is between 70 and 74 years. If you’re under 50, your risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer is very low, but it is possible.

Who is at risk for prostate cancer?

All men are at risk for prostate cancer, but African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men.

All men are at risk for prostate cancer. Out of every 100 American men, about 13 will get prostate cancer during their lifetime, and about 2 to 3 men will die from prostate cancer., The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer.

Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

Family history

For some men, genetic factors may put them at higher risk of prostate cancer. You may have an increased risk of getting a type of prostate cancer caused by genetic changes that are inherited if—

You have more than one first-degree relative (father, son, or brother) who had prostate cancer, including relatives in three generations on your mother’s or father’s side of the family., You were diagnosed with prostate cancer when you were 55 years old or younger., You were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and other members of your family have been diagnosed with breast, ovarian, or pancreatic cancer.

Is prostate cancer curable

There is no cure for metastatic prostate cancer, but it is often treatable for quite some time. Many people outlive their prostate cancer, even those who have advanced disease. Often, the prostate cancer grows slowly, and there are now effective treatment options that extend life even further

Further information: WHO website, email to [email protected], send text only messages to dr. azadeh whatsapp on 0022 7774469 only from 3 to 6 pm working days.

Dr. H. Azadeh, senior lecturer at the University of The Gambia, senior physician, clinical director, Medicare Health Services.