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Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Pregnancy : what is normal or abnormal ?

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One of the greatest and most profound periods in a woman’s life is when she has the opportunity to care for and nurture a tiny child in her womb. If, however, the mother finds she is not totally healthy, the effects of any disease or abnormality can have serious consequences for the baby she is carrying, and at times, these can affect both mother and baby simultaneously. Therefore, if abnormalities occur during pregnancy,

that is, if a mother experiences any abnormal symptoms during pregnancy, she should not be overly confident or take anything for granted. Instead, the best course of action is to immediately consult a doctor who can provide an accurate diagnosis and give professional advice. And what are the types of symptoms that could be classified as indicative of an abnormal pregnancy? Let’s find out.

The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on a urine test and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat. Pregnancy lasts for about 40 weeks, measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.

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The most important tasks of basic fetal cell differentiation occur during the first 3 months , so any harm done to the fetus during this period is most likely to result in miscarriage or serious disability.

There is little to no chance that a first 3months fetus can survive outside the womb, even with the best hospital care. Its systems are simply too undeveloped. the mother’s first perception of fetal movement. It is in the first 3 months that some women experience “morning sickness,” a form of nausea on awaking that usually passes within an hour.

The breasts also begin to prepare for nursing, and painful soreness from hardening milk glands may result. As the pregnancy progresses, the mother may experience many physical and emotional changes, ranging from increased moodiness to darkening of the skin in various areas. During the 3 months, the fetus undergoes a remarkable series of developments.

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Its physical parts become fully distinct and at least somewhat operational. With the best medical care, a second-3months fetus born prematurely has at least some chance of survival, although developmental delays and other handicaps may emerge later. As the fetus grows in size, the mother’s pregnant state will begin to be obvious. In the 3 months, the fetus enters the final stage of preparation for birth. It increases rapidly in weight, as does the mother. As the end of the pregnancy nears, there may be discomfort as the fetus moves into position in the woman’s lower abdomen.

Edema (swelling of the ankles), back pain, and balance problems are sometimes experienced during this time period. Most women are able to go about their usual activities until the very last days or weeks of pregnancy, including non-impact exercise and work. During the final days, some feel too much discomfort to continue at a full pace, although others report greatly increased energy just before the birth. Pregnancy ends when the birth process begins.

Early pregnancy symptoms

The very first symptom anyone has of pregnancy is a missed period. It may seem obvious, but it really is the cardinal sign that you might be pregnant. As early as the first day of your missed period, it’s possible to find out if you’re pregnant with either a home pregnancy test or a blood test in your doctor’s office.

Unfortunately, not every woman is lucky enough to have really regular periods, which makes this symptom less useful. If you are one of those women, think about other early pregnancy signs that might make you consider taking a pregnancy test.

Nausea and vomiting are among the most common symptoms for women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Over half of pregnant women will experience some nausea, and unfortunately, many also have some vomiting.

Strange food cravings and aversions are one symptom that may last your entire pregnancy.

Pregnant women will typically start to experience nausea and/or vomiting before the 9th week of pregnancy. These symptoms may also be associated with food cravings or aversions. While strange food cravings may last throughout the entire pregnancy, fortunately most of the nausea and vomiting will be gone by the end of the first trimester.

No one knows exactly what triggers nausea and vomiting – it may be due to increased levels of the pregnancy hormone HCG. Some have suggested that a long time ago nausea and vomiting kept pregnant women from eating things that might have been dangerous to the early pregnancy.

Breast tenderness or achiness also appears very early in pregnancy. This happens due to fluid retention as well as an increase in size of the milk glands. The amount of fatty tissue increases due to increased levels of pregnancy hormones. The nipple and areola also become darker very soon after conception.

When patients call with worries about bleeding during early pregnancy frequently ask if they still notice breast tenderness since it can disappear if the pregnancy is no longer viable.

Fatigue and sleepiness are a common complaint in early pregnancy. Increased levels of pregnancy hormones – progesterone in particular – can make you sleepy. Studies have shown if you give men progesterone you can induce the same sedation as occurs in early pregnancy! Fortunately, this symptom typically resolves after the first 3 months.

Late pregnancy symptoms

Women often complain about urinating a lot during pregnancy. Early in pregnancy, progesterone relaxes the urinary tract. As pregnancy continues, your growing uterus puts pressure on your bladder, making it seem like you just can’t hold as much urine.

A sluggish tract causes bloating and constipation. This can be worsened when we ask you to take iron supplements to prevent anemia.

hormone also relaxes the muscle in your troth, allowing acid to reflux from the stomach into the lower troth causing heartburn. The growing womb makes this symptom worse by increasing the pressure on the stomach.

About three-fourths of women will regularly feel short of breath during  Don’t worry though – you (and your baby) are getting enough oxygen!

Pregnant women are notorious for mood changes and emotional swings. They are caused by several different factors: physical stress from the pregnancy itself, fatigue, changes in metabolism, and hormonal ups and downs.

Dizziness is a common symptom that worsens in the last 3 months of pregnancy, as the womb gets bigger and pushes more on the veins returning blood from your legs.

When you suddenly change position or stand up, there is less blood flowing to your brain, causing you to feel lightheaded and unsteady. advise women to go slow and give your body enough time to adjust when standing or sitting up.

Increased skin pigmentation isn’t limited to your breasts. Other prominent changes include darkening of the line that runs from below your belly button to your pubic bone and dark splotches that appear on your forehead and cheeks.

Finally, a lot of pregnant women struggle with insomnia. This can continue Decreasing your screen time immediately before bed and a warm night-time bath may help.

When is the best time to take a pregnancy test?

Ovulation generally occurs around day 15 of a 28-day cycle. In a normal pregnancy, an egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube and then travels into the uterus, where it implants itself in the uterine wall. A woman’s body begins to produce pregnancy hormone from cells in the developing placenta (tissue that nourishes a growing fetus) soon after implantation of a fertilized egg inside the uterus. Around eight days after ovulation, trace levels of pregnancy hormone can be detected from an early pregnancy. That means a woman could get positive results several days before she expects her period to start.

The tricky part of timing when to take a test is that the duration of the first half of a menstrual cycle is more variable than the second. The length of time from the first day of a period to ovulation can vary by several days from month to month. Sexual activity around ovulation leads to the possibility of fertilization of the released egg by sperm. But even then, the time frame for a fertilized egg to implant can vary. And pregnancy hormone isn’t produced until after implantation has occurred.

For the most accurate results, we recommend that women test in the morning on the day they expect their period to start. This allows for variability in the timing of ovulation, fertilization, and implantation. Testing in the morning provides a urine sample that is concentrated.

Top 5 conditions of abnormal pregnancy

1. Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy

The amount of bleeding may vary considerably, from just a little to rather a lot, but regardless of quantity, mothers should not be complacent. During the first trimester there may be some normal spotting, as the fertilized egg implants itself on the lining of the uterus, causing hormonal changes and a certain amount of vaginal bleeding. However, some causes of vaginal bleeding or spotting are serious, possibly indicating a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. If a mother experiences bleeding combined with abdominal pain during the latter part of her pregnancy, this could also be an indication of a preterm birth. The best option always is to see a doctor.

2. Stomach discomfort, cramping or pain

Because these are relatively common symptoms, some people will not suspect anything out of the ordinary. Especially during pregnancy, these symptoms are more likely to occur because the digestive system works slower than normal. The expectant mothers might experience some constipation or gas.

The abdominal wall thickens and stretches to accommodate the growing uterus; and the steadily growing fetus will begin to squeeze or put pressure on the mother’s bladder, all of which can cause abdominal pain. This does not mean that mothers should dismiss symptoms like these, as they could also be signs of a urinary tract infection or ectopic pregnancy, that if left unchecked, could pose a risk of miscarriage.

3. Frequent headaches and blurred vision

These are common symptoms, especially in pregnant women, and they can be caused by dehydration, hormonal changes, stress and fatigue. Unfortunately, however, these symptoms can be a warning sign of something much more serious—preeclampsia. Especially if there is also swelling of the fingers and toes; the chances of preeclampsia are high.

4. Excessive thirst and sweating

When a new baby is growing in the womb, some of the fluids in the mother’s body are also passed on to the baby, and this means that expectant mothers can feel thirsty almost all the time. If you feel abnormally thirsty, however, and that thirst is not resolved by increasing your fluid intake, and if you are sweating at the same time, this could be a sign that you are experiencing a complication known as diabetes in pregnancy

5. No fetal movement or reduced fetal movement at more than 20 weeks gestation

An unborn baby grows in the womb more and more every day until there is no longer much space for it to flip itself or turn over. As a result, it does eventually move more slowly and, at times, is perhaps still or quiet as it is sleeping comfortably. Some mothers can get used to this feeling and thus may wrongly assume their baby is asleep, when in reality the baby’s lack of movement may also be indicative of an abnormality. If therefore, these symptoms appear, it is safest to first assume that there is the possibility that something is wrong. The best course of action is to consult a doctor and have health and pregnancy checkups on a regular basis. Doing so is the best way to help prevent any possible health problems for the new, soon-to-be-born baby, and also the mother-to-be.

Pregnancy care

For women who are thinking of starting a family or have been trying to conceive, Pregnancy Care offers a predictive and preventive approach through precise and personalized medicine, making certain that every step from conception to birth is as smooth, safe and healthy as possible. Our team of highly trained experts at Women’s Health Center consists of obstetricians, gynecologists, maternal fetal medicine specialists, geneticists, neonatologists, lactation specialists, and nurse midwives. The collaboration between these professionals and our patients remains at the core of our philosophy. Our goal is to provide the required knowledge, confidence and skills, which can help families make the best choices during one of life’s most exciting journey

For further information email to [email protected], text only to dr azadeh whatsapp 002207774469, between 3 t0 6 pm.

Author: Dr Hassan Azadeh MD, senior lecturer at the University of The Gambia, clinical director ar Medicare Health Services.

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