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City of Banjul
Friday, October 7, 2022

Men of Excellence: Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra)

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Friday Sermon delivered by Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad(at)

?a?rat Khal?fatul-Mas?? V (May All?h be his Helper) continued with the series of sermons regarding ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him). Huzoor (May All?h be his Helper) said: With regard to the achievements of the Khil?fat of ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), I will today relate some details regarding the rights of the Dhimm?. The word Dhimm? refers to the people who accepted Isl?mic rule while continuing to practice their own religion, and the Muslims took responsibility for their protection. These people were exempted from military service and payment of Zak?t. However, four dirhams were annually received as Jizya from every adult, healthy and ablebodied person among them. The elderly, handicapped, destitute, and children were exempt from this and were instead helped through Baitul-M?l. During the conquests of Iraq and Syria, many nonMuslim populations became Dhimm? after agreeing to pay Jizya. The treaties made with them included the provisions that their monasteries and churches would not be demolished, nor would any of their forts be destroyed so that they could remain fortified against the enemy in time of need. They would not be stopped from ringing bells or marching with the Cross during their festivals. One of the greatest and unparalleled achievements of ?a?rat Abu Bakr’s (May All?h be pleased with him) Khil?fat was the compilation of the Holy Qur?n. When about seven hundred companions, who had committed the Holy Qur?n to memory, were martyred in the battle of Yam?mah, All?h inspired ?a?rat’Umar (May All?h be pleased with him) to compile the Holy Qur?n in one volume. According to the details recorded in ?a???ul-Bukh?r?, after the battle of Yam?mah, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) summoned ?a?rat Zaid bin Th?bit (May All?h be pleased with him) and told him that ?a?rat ‘Umar (May All?h be pleased with him) had suggested that the Holy Qur?n should be compiled, and so he entrusted this task to ?a?rat Zaid bin Th?bit. ?a?rat Zaid bin Th?bit says: By All?h! If ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) had ordered me to move a mountain from one place to another, it would have been easier for me. ?a?rat Zaid bin Th?bit says: I collected the Qur?n from the branches of palm trees, from white stones, and from people’s chests. The Qur?n that ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) got compiled in one volume through ?a?rat Zaid bin Th?bit is called ?a??fah ?idd?qu?. It remained with ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), then with ?a?rat ‘Umar (May All?h be pleased with him), and then with Ummul-Mo’min?n ?a?rat ?af?ah bint ‘Umar (May All?h be pleased with them). Hadhrat ‘Uthm?n (May All?h be pleased with him) had some copies made of this manuscript and then returned it to ?a?rat ?af?ah. When Marw?n became the ruler of Medina in 54 A.H., he wanted to take this manuscript from ?a?rat ?af?ah but she refused to give it to him. After the demise of ?a?rat ?af?ah, Marw?n took this copy from ?a?rat Abdull?h bin ‘Umar (May All?h be pleased with them) and destroyed it. ?a?rat ‘Al? (May All?h be pleased with him) says that ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) was the first to preserve the Holy Qur?n in book form. Page 2 of 3 ?a?rat Mu?li? Mau’?d (May All?h be pleased with him) says: The truth is that there is no writing in the world that has been so consistently preserved as the Holy Qur?n. During the time of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him), the entire Qur?n had been written down, but it had not been compiled in one volume. Therefore, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) ordered it to be ‘collected’ and not to be ‘written’. The words themselves make it clear that it was a matter of compiling the Holy Qur?n, not writing it. During the Khil?fat of ?a?rat ‘Uthm?n (May All?h be pleased with him) out of the various readings of the Holy Qur?n, the Muslim world adopted the single Quraish dialect. The Promised Messiah (peace be upon him) says that the first Khal?fa, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), had all the chapters of the Holy Qur?n compiled according to the order he had heard from the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). After ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), All?h enabled ?a?rat ‘Uthm?n (May All?h be pleased with him), the third Khal?fa, to collect the Holy Qur?n that was in accord with the dialect of the Quraish and spread it in other countries. The accomplishments pioneered by ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) are called ‘Awwali?t-e-Abu Bakr’. They are as follows:

He was the first to accept Isl?m. He was the first to build a mosque in front of his house in Mecca. He fought the infidels of Mecca, in support of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). He was the first to buy freedom for slaves and bondsmen who were suffering persecution for the sake of Isl?m. He was the first to collect the Holy Qur?n in one volume. He was the first to name the Holy Qur?n ‘Mu??af’. He was the first Khal?fa of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). He was appointed as the first Am?r-e-?ajj during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). He led the Muslims in prayer for the first time during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). He was the first to establish Baitul-M?l in Isl?m. He was the first Khal?fa for whom the Muslims set an allowance. He was the first Khal?fa to have nominated his successor. He was the Khal?fa whose father was still alive when he received the Bai’at as Khal?fa. He was the first person in Isl?m upon whom the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) bestowed a title. He was the person whose four generations had the honour of being the companions of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). ?a?rat ‘?ishah (May All?h be pleased with him) describes ?a?rat Abu Bakr’s (May All?h be pleased with him) physical appearance as follows: He was fair-skinned and slim. He had little flesh on his cheeks. His back was curved. His eyes were deep set, and his forehead was high. ?a?rat Anas (May All?h be pleased with him) narrates that ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) used to apply colour to his hair. Once, when ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) saw a bird, he said, I wish I were like that bird, for it will not be questioned nor held accountable. At the time of his demise, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) said to ?a?rat ‘?ishah (May All?h be pleased with him): O, my daughter! You know that you are the most beloved to me and I gifted you such and such piece of land, but you did not take ownership of it. Now, I want you to return that land so that it will be divided among all my children according to the rules laid down in the book of All?h, so that I can say before God that I did not prefer any of my children over others. The day after he had been made Khal?fa, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) was going to the market carrying a roll of cloth on his shoulders so that he could sell it and make a living for his family. On the way, he met ?a?rat Abu ‘Ubaidah and ?a?rat ‘Umar (May All?h be pleased with them), on whose counsel a stipend was allocated for him. What was that stipend? He was given conveyance for his journeys and expenses equal to those he incurred before becoming Khal?fa and two sheets, which when they got old would be returned for new ones. Page 3 of 3 ?a?rat Mu?li? Mau’?d (May All?h be pleased with him) says that ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) was the sovereign of the whole Muslim world, but he got nothing in return. He was the custodian of the people’s wealth but did not spend any of it on himself. If the bridle fell from his hands, he would get down from the camel and pick it up himself. When asked why he did not ask someone else to hand it to him, he would say that he had been ordered by his beloved the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) not to ask anyone for anything. The Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) once heard people saying, what is Abu Bakr’s superiority over us? He prays as we pray and fasts as we do. The Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) said, the superiority of Abu Bakr is not due to his prayers and fasting. It is because of the goodness that is in his heart. Describing the high status of ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), the Promised Messiah (peace be upon him) says: The second life is what the Sufis term as ‘baq?’ (subsistence in God). When a person reaches this stage, All?h’s spirit is breathed into him, and angels descend on him. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) said of ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him), If anyone wants to see the dead walking on the earth, he should look at Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr’s status is not based on his outward actions but on what is in his heart. The following incident demonstrates ?a?rat Abu Bakr’s (May All?h be pleased with him) complete obedience, love, and respect for the Holy Prophet’s (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) honour. One day he came to the house of the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) and found ?a?rat ‘?ishah (May All?h be pleased with him) speaking to the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) in a loud voice. Seeing this, he was angry and was about to hit his daughter when the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) intervened. When ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) left, the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) jokingly said to ?a?rat ‘?ishah (May All?h be pleased with him), See, how I saved you from your father today. A few days later ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) came again and ?a?rat ‘?ishah (May All?h be pleased with him) was happily chatting with the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him). Seeing this, ?a?rat Abu Bakr (May All?h be pleased with him) said, you made me a part of your fight, will you now share your happiness with me? Hearing this, the Holy Prophet (May All?h’s blessings be upon him) said, we share. At the end of the sermon, Huzoor (May All?h be his Helper) said that he would continue with these accounts in future, insh?’All?h.  

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